Circular in Shape - Yacht  Design Project by Rudolf Bosnjak - Seabowl Yacht


Sea Products of Seabowl

To meet demands for some food ingredients for humans on board here is example what we can use from some process on board the Seabowl.

Salt (Sodium Chloride) produced from Seabowl desalting plant - Water desalinization.

Sodium chloride--a mineral which crystallizes in small transparent cubes, melts at 803 degrees centigrade, is soluble in both hot and cold water, and conducts a current of electricity-- was the first salt to be discovered by man.

It is found most everywhere in nature. The sea. The land. Even in the urine and perspiration of included. Sea water is evaporated, and rock salt is mined--so important is salt for the flavor of food, the needs of the diet, and even digestion (by increasing the hydrochloric acid content of digestive fluids). Animals have worn ineradicable trails in their quest for salt licks. Men of primitive tribes have reportedly sold their wives and children into slavery for it.

Salt is the only rock directly consumed by man. It corrodes but preserves, dessicates but is wrested from the water. It has fascinated man for thousands of years not only as a substance he prized and was willing to labour to obtain, but also as a generator of poetic and mythic meaning. The contradictions it embodies only intensify its power and its links with experience of the sacred. --Margaret Visser

The two kinds of salt are sea salt and rock salt. Sea salt is the only mineral condiment that man adds to food--and vegetarians need more of it than carnivores. This is true of animals as well as man: herbivorous animals crave salt while carnivorous ones ignore it. Complete abstinence from salt has, apparently, not been found possible, even in the most austere monastic orders.

For the purposes of cooking, salts are graded as follows:



FISH FARM from sea water circulating in special design fish farm space.



Mussel Farming

The life cycle of a mussel begins as a free-floating larva, which occur naturally in sea  waters. These larvae will attach themselves to spat collectors suspended in the water by mussel growers and remain there until they reach a size of approximately 1.5 centimeters.

At this time the spat is harvested, graded and transferred into tube like stockings known as "socks" which are hung on long lines to allow the mussels to grow to market size. These long lines are anchored to the bottom of the bays and are suspended using buoys below the surface of the water.

Fresh Mussels

Shells of fresh mussels are either tightly closed or will close when touched. If the shells are open or gaping, the mussels are dead or dying, and may well have an unpleasant smell. Mussels are sometimes eaten raw or lightly cooked. Inshore waters are subject to pollution by sewage to varying degrees, and some microscopic algae on which the mussels feed may produce toxins. Consequently, as is the case with all bivalve molluscs and some other shellfish, consumption of mussels contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, viruses or algal toxins is a significant cause of food poisoning. Therefore, harvesting, cleansing, handling and heat treatment are covered by specific regulations in the food safety legislation.

Extracting the Meats

Unless the mussels are to be eaten raw, the meats are normally removed by cooking the mussels in steam or boiling water.

The mussels should first be washed and then either steamed for about 4 minutes at 240F (10 lbs/square inch gauge pressure) or for about 6 minutes in boiling water at 212F or steam at atmosphere pressure; some processors prefer boiling to steaming since the meats shrink less. Mussel meats immersed in boiling water are sterilized after about 2 minutes; additional processing time should be just sufficient to cook the meats and no more, since overcooking causes excessive shrinkage of the meats. The liquor produced can be kept if required for use in bottling or canning. Cool the mussels quickly by water spray to prevent toughening of the meat. The meats are removed from the now open shells, usually by hand, and the beard or byssus pulled out. One bushel of whole mussels should yield from 6 to 9 pounds of cooked meats. Percentage yield by weight may range from about 8 per cent to as high as 20 per cent of the whole mussels. Wash the meats in clean fresh water, but do not leave them soaking in water or they will lose flavour and appear less attractive. The meats are now ready either for marketing as they are, or for further processing - they can be frozen, smoked, bottled or canned. Each of these processes is described fully below.

Freezing and Cold Storage of Mussels

There are no technical difficulties in preserving cooked mussel meats for long periods by freezing and cold storage; it is uneconomic to freeze the live mussel in shell.

The clean, cooked meats may be packed in a variety of containers before freezing, for example waxed cartons or polythene bags, or may be frozen unwrapped and packed or glazed afterwards. Mussel meats lend themselves equally well to either the plate freezing or the air blast freezing process, since the meats are small and provide good surface contact with the cooling medium. An unwrapped block of meats an inch thick, frozen in a tray in an air blast freezer operating at - 20F with an air speed of 1000 feet a minute, will take about 50 minutes to freeze to a temperature of - 5F; a small waxed tub 3 inches tall, 2 inches in diameter and holding about 3oz. of meats might take up to 80 minutes under the same conditions. Unwrapped meats should be glazed before storage, and all types of pack should preferably be stored at - 20F; thawed meats after eight to nine months storage will then be in excellent condition with flavour and texture equal to fresh. Meats stored at - 7F have been found to be of inferior quality after three months storage. Thawing of the meats in 10 salt solution (4 1/2 oz. salt to a gallon of water), or soaking the thawed meats in a similar solution, may enhance the flavour, the salt acting as a condiment; the use of salt during cooking or subsequent rinsing of the meats before freezing may however accelerate the development of off flavours in the frozen meats during cold storage.

Bottled Mussels

Mussels packed in glass are usually pickled either in brine or vinegar solution; they may or may not be heat processed. The following method is a suitable one for bottling mussels in spiced vinegar:

The cooked, cleaned meats are brined for up to three hours in a 10 salt solution, drained and allowed to stand for three days in a vinegar and salt solution, made by mixing one part of distilled vinegar with two parts of water, and then adding up to 3 per cent of salt by weight. The solution may acquire a bluish tinge during this time, but this does not affect the flavour of the product. The meats are then packed into glass jars and covered with spiced vinegar that has been diluted with an equal quantity of water. The jars are then sealed. If the sealed jars are not processed, they should be kept cool (34 to 40F) and not be exposed to strong light; they should then keep in good condition for 2 to 4 months. If the meats are to be heat processed, a 5 oz. jar will require sterilization for about an hour at 212F (atmospheric pressure) or 25-30 minutes at 221F (3 lbs. gauge pressure). Shelf life should then be comparable with canned foods, but it is still necessary to avoid discoloration of the contents by protecting the jars from strong light. Spiced vinegar may be made by adding the following spices to 5 pints of distilled vinegar mixed with 4 pints of water; 1/8 oz. bay leaves, 1/8 oz. white pepper, 1/4 oz. mustard seed, 1/8 oz. whole cloves, 1/8 oz. fennel 1/16 oz. paprika. The spices are simmered but not boiled in the vinegar for 45 minutes and then strained out; the solution is filtered and set aside to cool. The spice content may of course be varied to taste. Mussel liquor obtained during extraction of the cooked meats from the shell may be used instead of water to dilute the solution before adding to the bottled meats. Similarly white wine or wine vinegar may be used as alternatives to distilled vinegar. Scrupulous care must be taken to ensure perfectly clean conditions throughout the bottling process.

Jellied Mussels

Clean cooked meats are first pickled for three days in a vinegar solution made by adding one part of distilled vinegar to two parts of water. The jelly is prepared by dissolving lb gelatine in 4 pints of hot water to which has been added oz. of salt. When the jelly solution is cool, it is mixed with 2 pints of spiced vinegar and 2 pints of water. The meats are packed into jars and the mixture poured over them. Jellied mussels are not processed and should be stored in a cool place; shelf life should be from 2 to 4 months.

Smoked Mussels

The cooked, cleaned meats are first brined in a 50 brine for 5 minutes (made by adding 1 lb 8 oz. of salt to each gallon of water). The meats are then dipped in edible oil, spread out on wire mesh trays and smoked for 30 minutes in a dense smoke at 180F; the temperature of the mechanical kiln should be raised to this temperature before the mussels are put in. Turn the meats over once during the process to ensure uniform smoking. In the Netherlands, the meats are sometimes dried for 25 minutes and then smoked for 25 minutes at 160F. The smoked meats are packed in small jars, covered with good quality edible oil and the jars sterilized at 250F (15 lb per square inch gauge pressure). An 8 oz. jar requires about 15 minutes. The jars should be processed under water to prevent breakage, and cooled slowly. The smoked meats may also be packed in cans and heat processed.

Canned Mussels

Mussel meats may be canned in brine, or in a sauce, for example tomato sauce or tomato ketchup; smoked meats may be packed in brine or in edible oil. The cooked, cleaned meats are washed in fresh water or in weak brine, but not soaked, and weighed into cans; washing in weak brine prevents loss of flavour where the meats are not to be canned in brine. Boiling hot brine, made by dissolving 1 lb of salt in each gallon of water, is added to the can just before sealing; some head space is left, usually about inch for a can holding 5 to 6 oz. of meats. This size of can requires about 25 minutes heat processing in a retort at 240F (10 lbs per square inch gauge pressure) or 30 minutes if the cans are loaded cold. Meats packed with sauce, or smoked meats in oil instead of brine, need sterilizing in a similar manner. The meats shrink during processing; 6 lbs of meat may be reduced to 5 lbs drained weight after completion of the canning operation. The liquor extracted during cooking of the meats may be used after clarification either as a substitute for the added brine in the can, or for making the brine; the liquor or bouillon adds a little to the food value of the contents, but makes no difference to the flavour of the meats. Acetic acid is sometimes added to the brine before canning if the meats are infested with small pearls; this helps to dissolve the pearls during processing.

Scallop Farming

Sea scallop farming is a process that goes through certain steps. First spat are collected from the wild or from hatcheries. The juvenile scallops are then grown in hatcheries and suspended on long lines using fine mesh lantern nets or pearl nets. The final step is to grow them out in the Seabowl special space in sea-ocean. A number of methods can be used. One is Chinese lantern nets. Another technique involves passing loops through small holes drilled in the outer edge of the scallop shell and hanging them from the long line. Water proof adhesives are a third option and growing scallops on the sea floor (bottom culture) is the fourth. Growth varies from site to site, but with suspended culture, scallops usually take 18 months to two years to grow to size available for serving and eating at Seabowl restoran.



What are sea vegetables?

Sea vegetables, made up of seaweeds assimilate minerals from the sea and are the single most nutritious foods that you can eat. Rich in trace elements and vitamins, they contain more protein than meat and more calcium than milk.

How else are seaweeds used?

Seaweeds are currently used in ice cream, processed meats and cosmetics as binding agents. They are normally sold in a dry form –which can be stored for several years in a cool, dry place.

Medicinal properties of seaweed

The medicinal properties of seaweed include having an alkalising effect on the blood – ridding the blood of radioactive and metallic elements. Seaweeds are used to promote wound healing. They have been used as beauty aids as they give hair and skin a beautiful appearance and prevent ageing. They are extremely low in calories. All the plants contain a high degree of iodine, which is good for healthy thyroid function.

Different varieties of seaweeds

Agar : rich in iodine, calcium, iron, phosphorous, vitamins, A, B complex, C, D and K and also works as a gentle laxative. It is normally used for its unusual gelling quality and is a good thickener for soups and other dishes.

Arame : Found only in Japan, arame comes in fine, lacy strands. It has a sweet and crunchy texture. Medicinally, it is used for female problems and high blood pressure. It contains a high level of protein, iodine, calcium and iron.

Dulse : Dulse can be found on the West coast of Britain, Iceland and Ireland. It has a reddish colour and provides the highest source of iron. It also has significant amounts of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and protein.

Hijiki : This seaweed is rich in calcium and very good for pregnant women as it contains ten times the amount found in a glass of milk.

Irish moss : This seaweed contain high amounts of vitamin A and iodine and is used as a gel in ice cream, salad dressings or as a vegetable.

Kelps : Kelp has been used all over the world for hundreds of years. Medicinally it can be used to treat a number of ailments including weight loss, kidney problems and circulatory disease.

Other seaweeds include, Kombu, Laver, Nori, Sloke, Wakame.

The most popular edible seaweeds used in soups fall into three categories:

Brown algae (Phaeophyta),

Red algae (Rhodophyta), and

Green algae (Chlorophyta), though

Blue Green algae (Cyanophyta) is also collected and eaten.

Among the most popular brown algaes are:

Red algaes:

Green algaes:





Copyright 2005 Rudolf Bosnjak. All right reserved.